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How to Cite in Chicago Style (16th ed.)

Last Updated: Mar 14, 2018 10:44AM CDT
Learn how to cite sources according to the Chicago Manual of Style.

Chicago style offers two citation systems. In the first system, footnotes or endnotes are used to document source use in the text, and a bibliography at the end of the paper lists all sources. In the second system, author-date citations in the text are paired with a reference list at the end of the paper.

Thus, if you are required to cite in Chicago style, you’ll need to determine which of the two systems your instructor prefers. If you are required to use the notes-and-bibliography system, you’ll need to determine whether your instructor prefers footnotes (notes at the end of each page) or endnotes (notes at the end of the document).

For more information and examples of notes, author-date citations, bibliographic citations, and reference citations for various source types, see the resources in this folder: Chicago Citation.

Important note: Regardless of whether you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing, all uses of source material must be cited.

Related articles: How to Use Sources in Writing: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, How to Read, Write, and Organize in a Digital Environment
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